Migration to AIX PCM combined with OS update using Alternate Disk Copy

On most AIX systems the SP or TL level is updated at regular intervals. It makes sense to perform the migration from SDDPCM to AIX PCM together with such an update. This saves time and some reboots, which otherwise have to be done because of the multipathing migration. The migration from SDDPCM to AIX-PCM, as part of an OS update, using the Alternate Disk Copy method, is shown in more detail here:
https://powercampus.de/en/migration-to-aix-pcm-combined-with-os-update-using-alternate-disk-copy

Shared Ethernet Adapter Configuration

Scenario: dual vios setup completed, we want to configure two different Shared Ethernet Adapters to separate management and production traffic.

ioserver:padmin # lsdev -type adapter
name status description
ent0 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (10GbE SFP+) (e4148a1614109304)
ent1 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (10GbE SFP+) (e4148a1614109304)
ent2 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (1GbE RJ45) (e4148a1614109404)
ent3 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (1GbE RJ45) (e4148a1614109404)
ent4 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (10GbE SFP+) (e4148a1614109304)
ent5 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (10GbE SFP+) (e4148a1614109304)
ent6 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (1GbE RJ45) (e4148a1614109404)
ent7 Available PCIe2 4-Port Adapter (1GbE RJ45) (e4148a1614109404)
ent8 Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
ent9 Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
ent10 Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)

ioserver:padmin # for x in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7; do echo "ENT$x ==============================" ; lsattr -El ent$x | egrep "flow_ctrl|jumbo|large|chksum_offload" ; done
ENT0 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT1 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT2 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT3 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT4 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT5 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT6 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True
ENT7 ==============================
chksum_offload yes Request checksum offload True
flow_ctrl yes Request flow control True
flow_ctrl_rx yes Receive pause frames True
flow_ctrl_tx yes Transmit pause frames True
jumbo_frames no Request jumbo frames True
jumbo_size 9014 Requested jumbo frame size False
large_receive yes Request Rx TCP segment aggregation True
large_send yes Request Tx TCP segment offload True

ioserver:padmin # for x in 0 1 4 5; do chdev -l ent$x -a jumbo_frames=yes; done
ent0 changed
ent1 changed
ent4 changed
ent5 changed

Sea su mgmt

Now it is possible to define the shared ethernet adapter using the physical (ent2) adapter and virtual (ent8 ent9) to bridge data and sea control channel.

En10 will be used just to assign an ip address to the vios server.

mkvdev -sea ent2 -vadapter ent8 -default ent8 -defaultid 606 -attr ha_mode=auto ctl_chan=ent9
chdev -dev ent11 -attr health_time=60 link_time=10
chdev -dev ent11 -attr large_receive=yes

mktcpip -hostname vios1 -inetaddr 192.168.61.77 -interface en10 -netmask 255.255.255.0 -gateway 10.15.61.1
mktcpip -hostname vios2 -inetaddr 192.168.61.78 -interface en10 -netmask 255.255.255.0 -gateway 10.15.61.1

SAN LoginLogout da HMC cli

Per far effettuare il login sulla SAN a tutti i virtual adapter assegnati ad una LPAR si può intervenire da HMC, ad esempio:

hscroot@hmc7:~> lsnportlogin -m “System1” –filter “lpar_names=Lpar1”

lpar_name=Lpar1,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar1,slot_num=4,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx6b001c,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar1,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar1,slot_num=4,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx6b001d,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar1,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar1,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx6b0018,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=client,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar1,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar1,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx6b0019,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

hscroot@hmc7:~> chnportlogin -m “System2” -p Lpar2 -o login

hscroot@hmc7:~> lsnportlogin -m “System2” –filter “lpar_names=Lpar2”

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=6,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690010,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=6,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690011,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690014,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690015,wwpn_status=1,logged_in=vios,wwpn_status_reason=null

hscroot@hmc7:~> chnportlogin -m “System2” -p Lpar2 -o logout

hscroot@hmc7:~> lsnportlogin -m “System2” –filter “lpar_names=Lpar2”

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=6,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690010,wwpn_status=0,logged_in=none,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=6,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690011,wwpn_status=0,logged_in=none,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690014,wwpn_status=0,logged_in=none,wwpn_status_reason=null

lpar_name=Lpar2,lpar_id=3,profile_name=Lpar2,slot_num=7,wwpn=cxxxxxxxxxx690015,wwpn_status=0,logged_in=none,wwpn_status_reason=null

Configurazione LAN VIOS per Jumbo Frames

1) VERIFICA parametri schede fisiche 

Verificare che flow_ctrl, jumbo_frames, large_receive e large_send siano impostati a “yes” sulle schede fisiche che compongono l’etherchannel 

lsattr -El entX | egrep “flow_ctrl|jumbo|large” 

2) CONFIGURAZIONE JF su Etherchannel 

Impostare use_jumbo_frame=yes sul device EC , dopo averlo messo offline

rmdev -l entX   # where entX represents the EC device if one exists

chdev -l entX -a use_jumbo_frame=

mkdev -l entX   # where entX represents the EC device

Verifica: 

lsattr -El entX | egrep “mode|jumbo” 

3) IMPOSTAZIONE parametri virtual Ethernet 

Impostare i seguenti parametri sull’interfaccia con IP address: 

$ chdev -dev enX -attr mtu_bypass=on rfc1323=1 mtu=9000 

Impostare i seguenti parametri sulle virtual Ethernet (trunk) che compongono la SEA (non sono necessari sul control channel): 

max_buf_huge=128 

max_buf_large=256 

max_buf_medium=2048 

max_buf_small=4096 

max_buf_tiny=4096 

min_buf_huge=127 

min_buf_large=255 

min_buf_medium=2047 

min_buf_small=4095 

min_buf_tiny=4095 

chdev -dev entX -perm -attr max_buf_huge=128 max_buf_large=256 max_buf_medium=2048 max_buf_small=4096 max_buf_tiny=4096 min_buf_huge=127 min_buf_large=255 min_buf_medium=2047 min_buf_small=4095 min_buf_tiny=4095 

5) CONFIGURAZIONE SEA 

Configurare la SEA, abilitando largesend, large_receive e jumbo_frames. 

Nell’esempio, avendo un solo trunk, è stata impostata la modalità auto (ha_mode=auto), nel caso di SEA con più trunk impostare il load sharing (ha_mode=sharing): 

mkvdev -sea entXX -vadapter entYY -default entYY -defaultid 1 -attr ha_mode=auto ctl_chan=entZZ largesend=1 jumbo_frames=yes large_receive=yes adapter_reset=no thread=0 

chdev -l entX -a ha_mode=standby

rmdev -l entX

chdev -l entX -a jumbo_frames=yes largesend=1 jumbo_frames=yes large_receive=yes

mkdev -l entX

chdev -l entX -a ha_mode=auto

6) IMPOSTAZIONE parametri di rete sulle virtual Ethernet delle LPAR client 

Impostare i seguenti parametri sulla scheda di rete: 

max_buf_huge=128 

max_buf_large=256 

max_buf_medium=2048 

max_buf_small=4096 

max_buf_tiny=4096 

min_buf_huge=127 

min_buf_large=255 

min_buf_medium=2047 

min_buf_small=4095 

min_buf_tiny=4095 

chdev -l entX -a max_buf_huge=128 -a max_buf_large=256 -a max_buf_medium=2048 -a max_buf_small=4096 -a max_buf_tiny=4096 -a min_buf_huge=127 -a min_buf_large=255 -a min_buf_medium=2047 -a min_buf_small=4095 -a min_buf_tiny=4095 -P 

chdev -l enX  -a mtu_bypass=on -a tcp_nodelay=1 -a rfc1323=1 -a mtu=9000

Reboot 

Aix alt_disk_clone

Di seguito i passi eseguiti per clonare rootvg della lpar LPAR1 in occasione della migrazione da un P6-570 ad un P7-770.
Aggiungo un disco da 50GB (hdisk27) che ospiterà il rootvg della nuova partizione , sulla vecchia si chiamerà altinst_rootvg
al termine dell’operazione.

root@lpar1:/#lspv
hdisk0 00cff683554eac45 rootvg active
hdisk1 00cff683554eac7b rootvg active
hdisk4 00cff683e9f9313f vgappl30 active
hdisk2 00cff68379f89cc7 vgappl31 active
hdisk3 00cff68379f89dbe vgappl32 active
hdisk5 00cff68379f89e28 vgappl33 active
hdisk6 00cff68379f89e74 vgappl34 active
hdisk7 00cff68379f89eb4 vgappl35 active
hdisk8 00cff68379f89ef9 vgappl36 active
hdisk9 00cff68379f89f36 vgappl30 active
hdisk10 00cff68379f89f7a vgappl31 active
hdisk11 00cff68379f89fbb vgappl32 active
hdisk12 00cff68379f89ffc vgappl33 active
hdisk13 00cff68379f8a046 vgappl34 active
hdisk14 00cff68379f8a08b vgappl35 active
hdisk15 00cff68379f8a0d1 vgappl36 active
hdisk16 00cff6837a2fb38a tempvg active
hdisk17 00cff683ad734158 tempvg active
hdisk18 00cff6837b91c30d vgappl30 active
hdisk19 00cff683d38e1716 swapvg active
hdisk20 00cff6830a99978f vgappl30 active
hdisk21 00cff6830a999885 vgappl31 active
hdisk22 00cff6830a9998f1 vgappl32 active
hdisk23 00cff6830a999958 vgappl33 active
hdisk24 00cff6830a9999c5 vgappl34 active
hdisk25 00cff6830a999a4e vgappl35 active
hdisk26 00cff6830a999ace vgappl36 active
hdisk27 00cff6830915c025 None

 

Notare che se rootvg è mirrored l’operazione fallirà per mancanza di spazio; rimuovere mirror prima di procedere:

root@lpar1:/#unmirrorvg rootvg hdisk1
0516-1246 rmlvcopy: If hd5 is the boot logical volume, please run ‘chpv -c <diskname>’
as root user to clear the boot record and avoid a potential boot
off an old boot image that may reside on the disk from which this
logical volume is moved/removed.
0516-1804 chvg: The quorum change takes effect immediately.
0516-1144 unmirrorvg: rootvg successfully unmirrored, user should perform
bosboot of system to reinitialize boot records. Then, user must modify
bootlist to just include: hdisk0.

 

Verifichiamo lo stato del mirror :

root@lpar1:/#lsvg -p rootvg
rootvg:
PV_NAME PV STATE TOTAL PPs FREE PPs FREE DISTRIBUTION
hdisk0 active 981 588 08..00..188..196..196
hdisk1 active 981 981 197..196..196..196..196

 

OK , adesso rimuovo hdisk1 da rootvg :

root@lpar1:/#reducevg rootvg hdisk1
root@lpar1:/#lsvg -p rootvg
rootvg:
PV_NAME PV STATE TOTAL PPs FREE PPs FREE DISTRIBUTION
hdisk0 active 981 588 08..00..188..196..196

 

Un altro problema che potrebbe impedire l’operazione è la presenza di LV con nomi di lunghezza superiore a 12 caratteri
visto che la procedura aggiungerà un prefisso al nome originale dei logical volumes.

root@lpar1:/#smitty alt_clone

Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.

[Entry Fields]
* Target Disk(s) to install [hdisk27] +
Phase to execute all +
image.data file [] /
Exclude list [] /

Bundle to install [] +
-OR-
Fileset(s) to install []

Fix bundle to install []
-OR-
Fixes to install []

Directory or Device with images []
(required if filesets, bundles or fixes used)

installp Flags
COMMIT software updates? yes +
SAVE replaced files? no +
AUTOMATICALLY install requisite software? yes +
EXTEND file systems if space needed? yes +
OVERWRITE same or newer versions? no +
VERIFY install and check file sizes? no +
ACCEPT new license agreements? yes +

Customization script [] /
Set bootlist to boot from this disk
on next reboot? no +
Reboot when complete? no +
Verbose output? yes +
Debug output? no +

 

Attenzione a non selezionare la modifica della bootlist e il reboot when complete .

Selezionando l’output verboso vedremo la lista dei files che vengono copiati nel nuovo disco , inutile.

Alla fine avremo :

root@lpar1:/#lspv
hdisk0 00cff683554eac45 rootvg active
hdisk1 00cff683554eac7b None
hdisk4 00cff683e9f9313f vgappl30 active
hdisk2 00cff68379f89cc7 vgappl31 active
hdisk3 00cff68379f89dbe vgappl32 active
hdisk5 00cff68379f89e28 vgappl33 active
hdisk6 00cff68379f89e74 vgappl34 active
hdisk7 00cff68379f89eb4 vgappl35 active
hdisk8 00cff68379f89ef9 vgappl36 active
hdisk9 00cff68379f89f36 vgappl30 active
hdisk10 00cff68379f89f7a vgappl31 active
hdisk11 00cff68379f89fbb vgappl32 active
hdisk12 00cff68379f89ffc vgappl33 active
hdisk13 00cff68379f8a046 vgappl34 active
hdisk14 00cff68379f8a08b vgappl35 active
hdisk15 00cff68379f8a0d1 vgappl36 active
hdisk16 00cff6837a2fb38a tempvg active
hdisk17 00cff683ad734158 tempvg active
hdisk18 00cff6837b91c30d vgappl30 active
hdisk19 00cff683d38e1716 swapvg active
hdisk20 00cff6830a99978f vgappl30 active
hdisk21 00cff6830a999885 vgappl31 active
hdisk22 00cff6830a9998f1 vgappl32 active
hdisk23 00cff6830a999958 vgappl33 active
hdisk24 00cff6830a9999c5 vgappl34 active
hdisk25 00cff6830a999a4e vgappl35 active
hdisk26 00cff6830a999ace vgappl36 active
hdisk27 00cff6830915c025 altinst_rootvg

 

A questo punto abbiamo il nuovo rootvg (altinst_rootvg) , per accedervi dobbiamo usare il comando alt_rootvg_op.
Ad esempio possiamo “svegliare” il vg :

root@lpar1:/#alt_rootvg_op -W -d hdisk27
Waking up altinst_rootvg volume group …

root@lpar1:/#lsvg -l altinst_rootvg
altinst_rootvg:
LV NAME TYPE LPs PPs PVs LV STATE MOUNT POINT
alt_hd5 boot 1 1 1 closed/syncd N/A
alt_hd6 paging 16 16 1 closed/syncd N/A
alt_hd8 jfs2log 1 1 1 open/syncd N/A
alt_hd4 jfs2 8 8 1 open/syncd /alt_inst
alt_hd2 jfs2 37 37 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/usr
alt_hd9var jfs2 16 16 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/var
alt_hd3 jfs2 32 32 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/tmp
alt_hd10opt jfs2 64 64 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/opt
alt_hd11admin jfs2 2 2 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/admin
alt_dumplv0 sysdump 64 64 1 closed/syncd N/A
alt_livedump jfs2 4 4 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/var/adm/ras/livedump
alt_netbackup jfs2 64 64 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/opt/netbackup
alt_ocsinv jfs2 2 2 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/opt/ocsinventory
alt_nagios jfs2 2 2 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/opt/nagios
alt_logs jfs2 80 80 1 open/syncd /alt_inst/logs

 

e rimetterlo a dormire :

root@lpar1:/#alt_rootvg_op -S
Putting volume group altinst_rootvg to sleep …
forced unmount of /alt_inst/var/adm/ras/livedump
forced unmount of /alt_inst/var/adm/ras/livedump
forced unmount of /alt_inst/var
forced unmount of /alt_inst/var
forced unmount of /alt_inst/usr
forced unmount of /alt_inst/usr
forced unmount of /alt_inst/tmp
forced unmount of /alt_inst/tmp
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/ocsinventory
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/ocsinventory
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/netbackup
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/netbackup
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/nagios
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt/nagios
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt
forced unmount of /alt_inst/opt
forced unmount of /alt_inst/logs
forced unmount of /alt_inst/logs
forced unmount of /alt_inst/admin
forced unmount of /alt_inst/admin
forced unmount of /alt_inst
forced unmount of /alt_inst
Fixing LV control blocks…
Fixing file system superblocks…

root@lpar1:/#lsvg
rootvg
altinst_rootvg
vgappl30
vgappl31
vgappl32
vgappl33
vgappl34
vgappl35
vgappl36
stagevg
swapvg

root@lpar1:/#lsvg -l altinst_rootvg
0516-010 : Volume group must be varied on; use varyonvg command.

 

Ora non rimane che eliminare ogni traccia del vg e del disco dalla lpar per spostarlo sulla nuova.

root@lpar1:/#exportvg altinst_rootvg

root@lpar1:/#rmdev -dl hdisk27
hdisk27 deleted

 

SEA Failover definition in dual vios setup

Scenario , ambiente dual vios su cui vogliamo costruire una shared ethernet adapter con failover e vlan multiple.

Su entrambi I vios definire due virtual adapters su cui verranno configurate le vlan necessarie , in questo caso la 1 per la rete di produzione e la 606 per la management . E’ necessario attivare il 802.1q per poter assegnare vlan multiple all’adapter. Sul primo vios della coppia assegnamo anche trunk priority uguale a 1 .

 

 

 

 

Sul secondo vio replichiamo la stessa configurazione con però trunk priority uguale a 2.

 

 

 

 

A questo punto configuriamo I due virtual adapter che costituiranno il control channel per il failover della SEA . In questo caso utilizziamo un vlanid non usato , ad es . 999 , senza settare 802.1q e il

bridging.

 

 

 

 

 

Definiamo infine la SEA :

 

mkvdev -sea ent2 -vadapter ent3 -default ent3 -defaultid 1 -attr ha_mode=auto ctl_chan=ent4

ent5 Available

en5

et5

 

dove ent2 è la fisica , nel nostro caso un etherchannel costruito su due fisiche;

ent3 è il vadapter che conosce le vlan di prod e mgmt ;

defaultid = il vlanid di default ; ctl_chan = il vadapter sulla vlan 999 ;

 

Configuriamo l’ip address sulla sea oppure aggiungiamo un ulteriore vadapter per rimanere indipendenti dalla SEA e non perdere connettività in caso di manutenzione.

 

mkvdev -vlan ent5 -tagid 606

ent6 Available

en6

et6

 

e assegnamo l’ip address al nuovo adapter

 

mktcpip -hostname viosXX1 -inetaddr XX.XX.XX.XX -interface en5 -netmask 255.255.255.0 -gateway XX.XX.XX.XX mktcpip -hostname viosXX2 -inetaddr XX.XX.XX.XX -interface en5 -netmask 255.255.255.0 -gateway XX.XX.XX.XX

 

 

 

SuseStudio

Built with SUSE Studio

Finalmente mi è arrivato l’account per il SuseStudio Program, richiesto più di un anno fa!

Devo dire che ero estremamente curioso riguardo il lavoro che avrebbe fatto Novell + la comunità Opensuse.

Ma per adesso c’è da leccarsi i baffi, ragazzi.

Linux FileSystems

Ext4 è stato incluso nel kernel , ZFS (per ora solo su FUSE) potrebbe esserlo  a breve .

Lo sviluppo di nuovi file systems non conosce sosta, un ulteriore passo verso l’egemonia di Linux in ambiente Enterprise?

Aumentano le capacità massime di file e partizioni, Sun dice che ZFS consente partizioni “virtualmente illimitate”.

Nascono sempre nuove funzionalità, alcune a dire il vero già presenti in NSS di Novell a fine anni 90.

Cosa ne pensate?

Li avete provati? Li usate in ambienti di produzione?